API

Aop: 29

AOP Title

?


Estrogen receptor agonism leading to reproductive dysfunction

Short name:

?

Estrogen receptor agonism leading to reproductive dysfunction

Authors

?


  • Professor Tom Hutchinson, School of Biological Sciences, Plymouth, UK [tom.hutchinson{at}plymouth.ac.uk]
  • Dan Villeneuve, US EPA Mid-Continent Ecology Division, Duluth, MN. [villeneuve.dan{at}epa.gov]

Point of Contact

?


Tom Hutchinson

Contributors

?


  • Tom Hutchinson

Status

?

Author status OECD status OECD project SAAOP status
Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development 1.29 Included in OECD Work Plan


This AOP was last modified on December 03, 2016 16:37

?

Revision dates for related pages

Page Revision Date/Time
Agonism, Estrogen receptor September 16, 2017 10:14
Reduction, Cumulative fecundity and spawning March 20, 2017 17:52
Increase, Plasma vitellogenin concentrations September 16, 2017 10:14
Increase, Vitellogenin synthesis in liver September 16, 2017 10:14
Increase, Renal pathology due to VTG deposition September 16, 2017 10:14
Decrease, Population trajectory September 26, 2017 11:33
Altered, Reproductive behaviour December 03, 2016 16:33
Altered, Larval development December 03, 2016 16:33
Impaired development of, Reproductive organs December 03, 2016 16:33
Agonism, Estrogen receptor leads to Impaired development of, Reproductive organs December 03, 2016 16:37
Increase, Renal pathology due to VTG deposition leads to Altered, Larval development December 03, 2016 16:37
Agonism, Estrogen receptor leads to Increase, Vitellogenin synthesis in liver December 03, 2016 16:37
Increase, Plasma vitellogenin concentrations leads to Increase, Renal pathology due to VTG deposition November 29, 2016 20:01
Agonism, Estrogen receptor leads to Altered, Reproductive behaviour December 03, 2016 16:37
Increase, Vitellogenin synthesis in liver leads to Increase, Plasma vitellogenin concentrations December 03, 2016 16:37

Abstract

?


This AOP describes the linkages between agonism of the estrogen receptor (ER) and population relevant impacts on reproductive function in a range of oviparous vertebrates including amphibia, birds and fish. The information in this AOP for ER agonism does not apply to mammalian species and also not to invertebrates.



Amphibians are sensitive to ER agonists during the transformation from larval tadpole to juvenile frog as these include critical periods of metamorphic development and sex differentiation that may be particularly sensitive to endocrine disruption. Larvae exposed to ER agonists during mid-metamorphosis show developmental effects, a subsequent strong female-biased sex ratio which suggests that transient early life-stage exposure to ER agonists can produce effects on the reproductive organs that persist into the beginning of adult life-stages. Birds are also known to be vulnerable to ER agonists causing disruption of estrogen-regulated functions such as sexual differentiation and sexual behaviour. Model species such as the Japanese quail have been widely used as a model for studying various long-term effects after embryonic exposure to ER agonists. In terms of teleost fish, exposure to ER agonists leads to a suite of adverse outcomes depending upon whether exposures occur during or beyond the larval, juvenile and adult life-stages. For example, aquatic exposure to potent ER agonists during the larval and juvenile life-stages may leads to gonadal and renal pathology and skewed-sex ratios in adult fish (potentially 100% females). Larval, juvenile and adult male fish exposed to the same ER agonists display abnormal plasma or whole body levels of vitellogenin (VTG). Cumulative fecundity in adult populations is also adversely affected by ER agonists and this is an important endpoint in the OECD Test Guideline 229 Fish Short Term Reproduction Assay. In summary, this AOP has utility in supporting the application of test methods for detecting ER agonists, or in silico predictions of the ability of chemicals to act as ER agonists and cause impaired sexual development and reproductive dysfunction.


Background (optional)

?



Summary of the AOP

?



Stressors

?


Molecular Initiating Event

?

Title Short name
Agonism, Estrogen receptor Agonism, Estrogen receptor

Key Events

?

Title Short name
Reduction, Cumulative fecundity and spawning Reduction, Cumulative fecundity and spawning
Increase, Plasma vitellogenin concentrations Increase, Plasma vitellogenin concentrations
Increase, Vitellogenin synthesis in liver Increase, Vitellogenin synthesis in liver
Increase, Renal pathology due to VTG deposition Increase, Renal pathology due to VTG deposition

Adverse Outcome

?

Title Short name
Decrease, Population trajectory Decrease, Population trajectory
Altered, Reproductive behaviour Altered, Reproductive behaviour
Altered, Larval development Altered, Larval development
Impaired development of, Reproductive organs Impaired development of, Reproductive organs

Relationships Between Two Key Events (Including MIEs and AOs)

?

Network View

?

 

Life Stage Applicability

?

Life stage Evidence
Juvenile Strong
Embryo Strong

Taxonomic Applicability

?

Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Strong NCBI
Japanese quail Coturnix japonica Strong NCBI
northern leopard frog Rana pipiens Strong NCBI
medaka Oryzias latipes Strong NCBI
zebrafish Danio rerio Strong NCBI

Sex Applicability

?

Sex Evidence
Male Strong

Graphical Representation

?

Click to download graphical representation template

Overall Assessment of the AOP

?



In terms of the criteria associated with Key Events in this AOP, the following observations have been made as shown in parentheses []:

1. concordance of dose-response relationships?; [There is strong dose-response relationship concordance over a wide range of experimental studies using ER agonists in well-defined animals models, including amphibians, birds and fish];

2. temporal concordance among the key events and adverse effect?; [There is strong temporal concordance from partial and full life-cycle studies using ER agonists in well-defined animals models];

3. strength, consistency, and specificity of association of adverse effect and initiating event?; [In fish, there is a strong and consistent association between ER agonist exposure, disruption of sexual development and reproductive dysfunction. The same is true for amphibians and birds although the published studies are less numerous.];

4. biological plausibility, coherence, and consistency of the experimental evidence?; [For the oviparous species frequently studied to date, there is a high level of biological plausibility, coherence, and consistency across the published experimental evidence];

5. alternative mechanisms that logically present themselves and the extent to which they may distract from the postulated AOP?; [Other mechanisms of relevance to estrogen-mediated sexual development include the disruption of the steroidogenic pathways (eg see the AOP for aromatase inhibition in fish) and this alterative AOP should be considered alongside ER agonism in the context of elevated plasma VTG levels, disrupted sexual development of reproductive dysfunction. The possibility of other AOPs arisign should be kept in mind through critical analysis of the updated pree-reviewed literature];

6. uncertainties, inconsistencies and data gaps?; [An important aspect of uncertainty is quantifying the degree to which disrupted sexual development leads to a population-relevant impact via reproductive dysfunction. Experimental and validated population modelling is a key need to address this data gap and uncertainty. In the author's view, there are no major scientific inconsistencies with regard to the ER agonism AOP and associated Key Events].

Domain of Applicability

?

Life Stage Applicability, Taxonomic Applicability, Sex Applicability
In terms of the taxonomic domains of applicability, exposure to ER agonists is capable of disrupting sexual development and causing reproductive dysfunction in oviparous species suchas amphibians, birds and fish (see examples of peer-revised literature cited below).


Essentiality of the Key Events

?


Weight of Evidence Summary

?


Quantitative Considerations

?


Considerations for Potential Applications of the AOP (optional)

?



References

?



Dang, Z., Traas, T., Vermeire, T. (2011) Evaluation of the fish short term reproduction assay for detecting endocrine disrupters. Chemosphere 85: 1592-1603

Halldin, K., Axelsson, J., Brunström, B., (2005) Effects of endocrine modulators on sexual differentiation and reproductive function in male Japanese quail. Brain Research Bulletin 65: 211-218

Hogan, N.S., Duarte, P., Wade, M.G., Lean, D.R.S., Trudeau, V.L. (2008) Estrogenic exposure affects metamorphosis and alters sex ratios in the northern leopard frog (Rana pipiens): Identifying critically vulnerable periods of development. General and Comparative Endocrinology 156: 515-523

Hutchinson T.H. (2002) Impacts of endocrine disrupters on fish development: opportunities for adapting OECD Test Guideline 210. Environmental Sciences 9: 439-450

Länge R., Hutchinson T.H., Croudace C.P., Siegmund F., Schweinfurth H., Hampe P., Panter G.H., Sumpter J.P. (2001) Effects of the synthetic oestrogen 17-ethinylestradiol over the life-cycle of the fathead minnow. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 20: 1216–1227

Leino, R.L., Jensen,K.M., Ankley, G.T. (2005) Gonadal histology and characteristic histopathology associated with endocrine disruption in the adult fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology 19: 85-98

Ottinger, M.N., Carro, T., Bohannon, M., Baltos,L., Marcell, A.M., McKernan, M., Dean, K.M., Lavoie, E., Abdelnabi, M. (2013) Assessing effects of environmental chemicals on neuroendocrine systems: Potential mechanisms and functional outcomes. General and Comparative Endocrinology 190: 194-202