Key Event Title
|Level of Biological Organization|
Key Event Components
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
|AOP Name||Role of event in AOP|
|EcR agonism leading to incomplete ecdysis associated mortality||KeyEvent|
|Complex III inhibition leading to growth inhibition (1)||AdverseOutcome|
|Complex III inhibition leading to growth inhibition (2)||AdverseOutcome|
|Formation of DNA photoproducts leading to growth inhibition (1)||AdverseOutcome|
|Excessive ROS leading to mortality (1)||AdverseOutcome|
|Excessive ROS leading to mortality (2)||AdverseOutcome|
|Excessive ROS leading to mortality (3)||AdverseOutcome|
|Excessive ROS leading to mortality (4)||AdverseOutcome|
|SAM depletion leading to population decline (2)||AdverseOutcome|
|SAM depletion leading to population decline (1)||AdverseOutcome|
|Chitinase inhibition leading to mortality||AdverseOutcome|
|Chitobiase inhibition leading to mortality||AdverseOutcome|
|CHS-1 inhibition leading to mortality||AdverseOutcome|
|SUR binding leading to mortality||AdverseOutcome|
|Lucilia cuprina||Lucilia cuprina||High||NCBI|
|Daphnia magna||Daphnia magna||High||NCBI|
|All life stages||High|
Key Event Description
This key event is observed at the biological level of the individual and describes the increase of mortality of individuals upon exposure to a stressor.
How It Is Measured or Detected
The AO can be detected by observation, for example by immobilization of the respective organisms. There exist guidelines for the characterization of this AO in arthropods. For example, the OECD 202 Daphnia sp. Acute immobilization test (OECD 2004) which can also be modified depending on the effect one expects.
Domain of Applicability
Taxonomic: This AO is applicable to all living organisms.
Life stage: This AO is applicable to all life stages.
Sex: This AO is applicable to all sexes.
Chemical: Substances known to increase mortality in arthropods are of the family of pyrimidine nucleosides (e.g. polyoxin D and nikkomycin Z) (Gijswijt et al. 1979; Tellam et al. 2000; Arakawa et al. 2008).
Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor
Regulatory Significance of the Adverse Outcome
The Adverse Outcome is highly significant from a regulatory point of view. It is employed as regulatory endpoint in most studies assessing the toxicity of stressors.
Arakawa T, Yukuhiro F, Noda H. 2008. Insecticidal effect of a fungicide containing polyoxin B on the larvae of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), Mamestra brassicae, Mythimna separata, and Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Appl Entomol Zool. 43(2):173–181. doi:10.1303/aez.2008.173.
Gijswijt MJ, Deul DH, de Jong BJ. 1979. Inhibition of chitin synthesis by benzoyl-phenylurea insecticides, III. Similarity in action in Pieris brassicae (L.) with Polyoxin D. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 12(1):87–94. doi:10.1016/0048-3575(79)90098-1.
OECD. 2004. Test No. 202: Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test. OECD OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Section 2. [accessed 2020 Mar 3]. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/environment/test-no-202-daphnia-sp-acute-immobilisation-test_9789264069947-en.
Tellam RL, Vuocolo T, Johnson SE, Jarmey J, Pearson RD. 2000. Insect chitin synthase. cDNA sequence, gene organization and expression. Eur J Biochem. 267(19):6025–6043. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.2000.01679.x.