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Event: 350

Key Event Title

A descriptive phrase which defines a discrete biological change that can be measured. More help

Increase, Mortality

Short name
The KE short name should be a reasonable abbreviation of the KE title and is used in labelling this object throughout the AOP-Wiki. More help
Increase, Mortality
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Biological Context

Structured terms, selected from a drop-down menu, are used to identify the level of biological organization for each KE. More help
Level of Biological Organization
Individual

Key Event Components

The KE, as defined by a set structured ontology terms consisting of a biological process, object, and action with each term originating from one of 14 biological ontologies (Ives, et al., 2017; https://aopwiki.org/info_pages/2/info_linked_pages/7#List). Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signalling).Biological process describes dynamics of the underlying biological system (e.g., receptor signaling).  The biological object is the subject of the perturbation (e.g., a specific biological receptor that is activated or inhibited). Action represents the direction of perturbation of this system (generally increased or decreased; e.g., ‘decreased’ in the case of a receptor that is inhibited to indicate a decrease in the signaling by that receptor).  Note that when editing Event Components, clicking an existing Event Component from the Suggestions menu will autopopulate these fields, along with their source ID and description.  To clear any fields before submitting the event component, use the 'Clear process,' 'Clear object,' or 'Clear action' buttons.  If a desired term does not exist, a new term request may be made via Term Requests.  Event components may not be edited; to edit an event component, remove the existing event component and create a new one using the terms that you wish to add.  Further information on Event Components and Biological Context may be viewed on the attached pdf. More help
Process Object Action
mortality increased

Key Event Overview

AOPs Including This Key Event

All of the AOPs that are linked to this KE will automatically be listed in this subsection. This table can be particularly useful for derivation of AOP networks including the KE. Clicking on the name of the AOP will bring you to the individual page for that AOP. More help
AOP Name Role of event in AOP Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
EcR agonism leading to incomplete ecdysis associated mortality KeyEvent Knut Erik Tollefsen (send email) Open for citation & comment
Formation of DNA photoproducts leading to growth inhibition (1) AdverseOutcome You Song (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
Excessive ROS leading to mortality (1) AdverseOutcome You Song (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
Excessive ROS leading to mortality (2) AdverseOutcome You Song (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
Excessive ROS leading to mortality (3) AdverseOutcome You Song (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
Excessive ROS leading to mortality (4) AdverseOutcome You Song (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
SAM depletion leading to population decline (2) AdverseOutcome You Song (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
SAM depletion leading to population decline (1) AdverseOutcome You Song (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite
Chitinase inhibition leading to mortality AdverseOutcome Simon Schmid (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development
Chitobiase inhibition leading to mortality AdverseOutcome Simon Schmid (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development
CHS-1 inhibition leading to mortality AdverseOutcome Simon Schmid (send email) Open for citation & comment WPHA/WNT Endorsed
SUR binding leading to mortality AdverseOutcome Simon Schmid (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KE.In many cases, individual species identified in these structured fields will be those for which the strongest evidence used in constructing the AOP was available in relation to this KE. More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Lucilia cuprina Lucilia cuprina High NCBI
Daphnia magna Daphnia magna High NCBI

Life Stages

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KE. More help
Life stage Evidence
All life stages High

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KE. More help
Term Evidence
Unspecific High

Key Event Description

A description of the biological state being observed or measured, the biological compartment in which it is measured, and its general role in the biology should be provided. More help

This key event is observed at the biological level of the individual and describes the increase of mortality of individuals upon exposure to a stressor.

How It Is Measured or Detected

A description of the type(s) of measurements that can be employed to evaluate the KE and the relative level of scientific confidence in those measurements.These can range from citation of specific validated test guidelines, citation of specific methods published in the peer reviewed literature, or outlines of a general protocol or approach (e.g., a protein may be measured by ELISA). Do not provide detailed protocols. More help

The AO can be detected by observation, for example by immobilization of the respective organisms. There exist guidelines for the characterization of this AO in arthropods. For example, the OECD 202 Daphnia sp. Acute immobilization test (OECD 2004) which can also be modified depending on the effect one expects.

Domain of Applicability

A description of the scientific basis for the indicated domains of applicability and the WoE calls (if provided).  More help

Taxonomic: This AO is applicable to all living organisms.

Life stage: This AO is applicable to all life stages.

Sex: This AO is applicable to all sexes.

Chemical: Substances known to increase mortality in arthropods are of the family of pyrimidine nucleosides (e.g. polyoxin D and nikkomycin Z) (Gijswijt et al. 1979; Tellam et al. 2000; Arakawa et al. 2008).

Regulatory Significance of the Adverse Outcome

An AO is a specialised KE that represents the end (an adverse outcome of regulatory significance) of an AOP. More help

The Adverse Outcome is highly significant from a regulatory point of view. It is employed as regulatory endpoint in most studies assessing the toxicity of stressors.

References

List of the literature that was cited for this KE description. More help

Arakawa T, Yukuhiro F, Noda H. 2008. Insecticidal effect of a fungicide containing polyoxin B on the larvae of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), Mamestra brassicae, Mythimna separata, and Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Appl Entomol Zool. 43(2):173–181. doi:10.1303/aez.2008.173.

Gijswijt MJ, Deul DH, de Jong BJ. 1979. Inhibition of chitin synthesis by benzoyl-phenylurea insecticides, III. Similarity in action in Pieris brassicae (L.) with Polyoxin D. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 12(1):87–94. doi:10.1016/0048-3575(79)90098-1.

OECD. 2004. Test No. 202: Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test. OECD OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Section 2. [accessed 2020 Mar 3]. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/environment/test-no-202-daphnia-sp-acute-immobilisation-test_9789264069947-en.

Tellam RL, Vuocolo T, Johnson SE, Jarmey J, Pearson RD. 2000. Insect chitin synthase. cDNA sequence, gene organization and expression. Eur J Biochem. 267(19):6025–6043. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.2000.01679.x.