API

Event: 350

Key Event Title

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Increase, Mortality

Short name

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Increase, Mortality

Biological Context

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Level of Biological Organization
Individual



Key Event Components

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Process Object Action
mortality increased

Key Event Overview


AOPs Including This Key Event

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Stressors

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Taxonomic Applicability

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Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
Lucilia cuprina Lucilia cuprina High NCBI
Daphnia magna Daphnia magna High NCBI

Life Stages

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Life stage Evidence
All life stages High

Sex Applicability

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Term Evidence
Unspecific High

Key Event Description

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This key event is observed at the biological level of the individual and describes the increase of mortality of individuals upon exposure to a stressor.


How It Is Measured or Detected

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The AO can be detected by observation, for example by immobilization of the respective organisms. There exist guidelines for the characterization of this AO in arthropods. For example, the OECD 202 Daphnia sp. Acute immobilization test (OECD 2004) which can also be modified depending on the effect one expects.


Domain of Applicability

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Taxonomic: This AO is applicable to all living organisms.

Life stage: This AO is applicable to all life stages.

Sex: This AO is applicable to all sexes.

Chemical: Substances known to increase mortality in arthropods are of the family of pyrimidine nucleosides (e.g. polyoxin D and nikkomycin Z) (Gijswijt et al. 1979; Tellam et al. 2000; Arakawa et al. 2008).


Evidence for Perturbation by Stressor



Regulatory Significance of the Adverse Outcome

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The Adverse Outcome is highly significant from a regulatory point of view. It is employed as regulatory endpoint in most studies assessing the toxicity of stressors.


References

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Arakawa T, Yukuhiro F, Noda H. 2008. Insecticidal effect of a fungicide containing polyoxin B on the larvae of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), Mamestra brassicae, Mythimna separata, and Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Appl Entomol Zool. 43(2):173–181. doi:10.1303/aez.2008.173.

Gijswijt MJ, Deul DH, de Jong BJ. 1979. Inhibition of chitin synthesis by benzoyl-phenylurea insecticides, III. Similarity in action in Pieris brassicae (L.) with Polyoxin D. Pestic Biochem Physiol. 12(1):87–94. doi:10.1016/0048-3575(79)90098-1.

OECD. 2004. Test No. 202: Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test. OECD OECD Guidelines for the Testing of Chemicals, Section 2. [accessed 2020 Mar 3]. https://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/environment/test-no-202-daphnia-sp-acute-immobilisation-test_9789264069947-en.

Tellam RL, Vuocolo T, Johnson SE, Jarmey J, Pearson RD. 2000. Insect chitin synthase. cDNA sequence, gene organization and expression. Eur J Biochem. 267(19):6025–6043. doi:10.1046/j.1432-1327.2000.01679.x.