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TH synthesis, Decreased leads to T4 in serum, Decreased
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
Life Stage Applicability
|All life stages||High|
Key Event Relationship Description
Thyroid hormones (THs), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) are synthesized by NIS and TPO in the thyroid gland as iodinated thyroglobulin (Tg) and stored in the colloid of thyroid follicles across vertebrates. Secretion from the follicle into serum is a multi-step process. The first involves thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation of the separation of the peptide linkage between Tg and TH. The next steps involve endocytosis of colloid, fusion of the endosome with the basolateral membrane of the thyrocyte, and finally release of TH into blood. More detailed descriptions of this process can be found in reviews by Braverman and Utiger (2012) and Zoeller et al. (2007).
Evidence Supporting this KER
The weight of evidence linking these two KEs of decreased TH synthesis and decreased T4 in serum is strong. It is commonly accepted dogma that decreased synthesis in the thyroid gland will result in decreased circulating TH (serum T4).
The biological relationship between two KEs in this KER is well understood and documented fact within the scientific community.
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
There are no inconsistencies in this KER, but there are some uncertainties. The first uncertainty stems from the paucity of data for quantitative modeling of the relationship between the degree of synthesis decrease and resulting changes in circulating T4 concentrations. In addition, most of the data supporting this KER comes from inhibition of TPO, and there are a number of other processes (e.g., endocytosis, lysosomal fusion, basolateral fusion and release) that are not as well studied.
Fisher et al. (2013) published a quantitative biologically-based dose-response model for iodine deficiency in the rat. This model provides quantitative relationships for thyroidal T4 synthesis (iodine organification) and predictions of serum T4 concentrations in developing rats. There are other computational models that include thyroid hormone synthesis. Ekerot et al. (2012) modeled TPO, T3, T4 and TSH in dogs and humans based on exposure to myeloperoxidase inhibitors that also inhibit TPO. This model was recently adapted for rat (Leonard et al., 2016) and Hassan et al (2017) have extended it to include the pregnant rat dam in response to TPO inhibition induced by PTU. While the original model predicted serum TH and TSH levels as a function of oral dose, it was not used to explicitly predict the relationship between serum hormones and TPO inhibition, or thyroidal hormone synthesis. Leonard et al. (2016) recently incorporated TPO inhibition into the model. Degon et al (2008) developed a human thyroid model that includes TPO, but does not make quantitative prediction of organification changes due to inhibition of the TPO enzyme. Further empirical support for the response-response relationship has been demonstrated in the amphibian model, Xenopus laevis, exposed to TPO inhibitors during pro-metamorphosis (Haselman et al., 2020) wherein temporal profiles were measured for both thyroidal and circulating T4.
Given that the thyroid gland contains follicular lumen space filled with stored thyroglobulin/T4, complete inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis at a given point in time will not result in an instantaneous decrease in circulating T4. The system will be capable of maintaining sufficient circulating T4 levels until the gland stores are depleted. The time it takes to deplete stored hormone will greatly depend on species, developmental status and numerous other factors.
In Xenopus, Haselman et al. (2020) demonstrated an approximately 5 day difference between a significant decrease in thyroidal T4 preceding a significant decrease in circulating T4 while exposed to a potent TPO inhibitor (MMI) continuously during pro-metamorphosis.
Known modulating factors
During Xenopus metamorphosis, circulating T4 steadily increases to peak levels at metamorphic climax. Therefore, during Xenopus metamorphosis, this KER is operable at an increased rate as compared to a system that is maintaining steady circulating T4 levels through homeostatic control. In this case, developmental status is a modulating factor for the rates and trajectories of these KEs.
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
This KER is entirely influenced by the feedback loop between circulating T4 originating from the thyroid gland and circulating TSH originating from the pituitary. Intermediate biochemical processes exist within the hypothalamus to affirm feedback and coordinately release TSH from the pituitary. However, quantitative representations of these feedback processes are limited to models discussed previously.
In Xenopus, circulating levels of T4 increase through pro-metamorphosis indicating a "release" of feedback to allow circulating levels of T4 to increase and drive metamorphic changes (Sternberg et al., 2011). This provides evidence that homeostatic control of feedback can be developmentally dependent, and likely species dependent.
Domain of Applicability
Taxonomic: This KER is plausibly applicable across vertebrates. While a majority of the empirical evidence comes from work with laboratory rodents, there is a large amount of supporting data from humans (with anti-hyperthyroidism drugs including propylthiouracil and methimazole), some amphibian species (e.g., frog), fish species (e.g., zebrafish and fathead minnow), and some avian species (e.g, chicken). The following are samples from a large literature that supports this concept: Cooper et al. (1982; 1983); Hornung et al. (2010); Van Herck et al. (2013); Paul et al. (2013); Nelson et al. (2016); Alexander et al. (2017); Stinckens et al. (2020).
Life stage: Applicability to certain life stages may depend on the species and their dependence on maternally transferred thyroid hormones during the earliest phases of development. The earliest life stages of teleost fish rely on maternally transferred THs to regulate certain developmental processes until embryonic TH synthesis is active (Power et al., 2001). As a result, TPO inhibition is not expected to decrease TH synthesis during these earliest stages of development. In zebrafish, Opitz et al. (2011) showed the formation of a first thyroid follicle at 55 hours post fertilization (hpf), Chang et al. (2012) showed a first significant TH increase at 120 hpf and Walter et al. (2019) showed clear TH production already at 72 hpf but did not analyse time points between 24 and 72 hpf. In fathead minnows, a significant increase of whole body thyroid hormone levels was already observed between 1 and 2 dpf, which corresponds to the appearance of the thyroid anlage at 35 hpf prior to the first observation of thyroid follicles at 58 hpf (Wabuke-Bunoti and Firling, 1983). It is still uncertain when exactly embryonic TH synthesis is activated and how this determines sensitivity to TH disruptors.
Sex: The KE is plausibly applicable to both sexes. Thyroid hormones are essential in both sexes and the components of the HPT-axis are identical in both sexes. There can however be sex-dependent differences in the sensitivity to the disruption of thyroid hormone levels and the magnitude of the response. In humans, females appear more susceptible to hypothyroidism compared to males when exposed to certain halogenated chemicals (Hernandez‐Mariano et al., 2017; Webster et al., 2014). In adult zebrafish, Liu et al. (2019) showed sex-dependent changes in thyroid hormone levels and mRNA expression of regulatory genes including corticotropin releasing hormone (crh), thyroid stimulating hormone (tsh) and deiodinase 2 after exposure to organophosphate flame retardants. The underlying mechanism of any sex-related differences remains unclear.
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Antonica F, Kasprzyk DF, Opitz R, Iacovino M, Liao XH, Dumitrescu AM, Refetoff S, Peremans K, Manto M, Kyba M, Costagliola S. Generation of functional thyroid from embryonic stem cells. Nature. 2012 491(7422):66-71.
Atterwill CK, Fowler KF. A comparison of cultured rat FRTL-5 and porcine thyroid cells for predicting the thyroid toxicity of xenobiotics. Toxicol In Vitro. 1990. 4(4-5):369-74.
Braverman, L.E. and Utiger, R.D. (2012). Werner and Ingbar's The Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text (10 ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 775-786. ISBN 978-1451120639.
Brown CG, Fowler KL, Nicholls PJ, Atterwill C. Assessment of thyrotoxicity using in vitro cell culture systems. Food Chem Toxicol. 1986 24(6-7):557-62.
Brucker-Davis F. Effects of environmental synthetic chemicals on thyroid function. Thyroid. 1998 8(9):827-56.
Chang J, Wang M, Gui W, Zhao Y, Yu L, Zhu G. 2012. Changes in thyroid hormone levels during zebrafish development. Zoological Science. 29(3):181-184.
Cooper DS, Kieffer JD, Halpern R, Saxe V, Mover H, Maloof F, Ridgway EC (1983) Propylthiouracil (PTU) pharmacology in the rat. II. Effects of PTU on thyroid function. Endocrinology 113:921-928.
Cooper DS, Saxe VC, Meskell M, Maloof F, Ridgway EC.Acute effects of propylthiouracil (PTU) on thyroidal iodide organification and peripheral iodothyronine deiodination: correlation with serum PTU levels measured by radioimmunoassay. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1982 54(1):101-7.
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Haselman, J.T., Olker, J.H., Kosian, P.A., Korte, J.J., Swintek, J.A., Denny, J.S., Nichols, J.W., Tietge, J.E., Hornung, M.W. and Degitz, S.J., 2020. Targeted pathway-based in vivo testing using thyroperoxidase inhibition to evaluate plasma thyroxine as a surrogate metric of metamorphic success in model amphibian Xenopus laevis. Toxicological Sciences, 175(2), pp.236-250.
Hassan, I, El-Masri, H., Kosian, PA, Ford, J, Degitz, SJ and Gilbert, ME. Quantitative Adverse Outcome Pathway for Neurodevelopmental Effects of Thyroid Peroxidase-Induced Thyroid Hormone Synthesis Inhibition. Toxicol Sci. 2017 Nov 1;160(1):57-73
Hassan, I., El-Masri, H., Ford, J., Brennan, A., Handa, S., Paul Friedman, K. and Gilbert, M.E., 2020. Extrapolating in vitro screening assay data for thyroperoxidase inhibition to predict serum thyroid hormones in the rat. Toxicological Sciences, 173(2), pp.280-292.
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Hornung MW, Degitz SJ, Korte LM, Olson JM, Kosian PA, Linnum AL, Tietge JE. Inhibition of thyroid hormone release from cultured amphibian thyroid glands by methimazole, 6-propylthiouracil, and perchlorate. Toxicol Sci. 2010 118(1):42-51.
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Liu CS, Zhang XW, Deng J, Hecker M, Al-Khedhairy A, Giesy JP, Zhou BS. 2011. Effects of prochloraz or propylthiouracil on the cross-talk between the hpg, hpa, and hpt axes in zebrafish. Environmental Science & Technology. 45(2):769-775.
Liu XS, Cai Y, Wang Y, Xu SH, Ji K, Choi K. 2019. Effects of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (tdcpp) and triphenyl phosphate (tpp) on sex-dependent alterations of thyroid hormones in adult zebrafish. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 170:25-32.
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Opitz R, Maquet E, Zoenen M, Dadhich R, Costagliola S. 2011. Tsh receptor function is required for normal thyroid differentiation in zebrafish. Molecular Endocrinology. 25(9):1579-1599.
Paul KB, Hedge JM, Macherla C, Filer DL, Burgess E, Simmons SO, Crofton KM, Hornung MW. Cross-species analysis of thyroperoxidase inhibition by xenobiotics demonstrates conservation of response between pig and rat. Toxicology. 2013. 312:97-107.
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