Upstream eventTH synthesis, Decreased
T4 in serum, Decreased
Key Event Relationship Overview
AOPs Referencing Relationship
|AOP Name||Adjacency||Weight of Evidence||Quantitative Understanding|
|Inhibition of Thyroperoxidase and Subsequent Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Mammals||adjacent||High||Moderate|
|XX Inhibition of Sodium Iodide Symporter and Subsequent Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Mammals||adjacent||High||Moderate|
|Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) Inhibition and Subsequent Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Mammals||adjacent||High||High|
|Inhibition of Na+/I- symporter (NIS) leads to learning and memory impairment||adjacent||High||Moderate|
|Thyroperoxidase inhibition leading to reduced young of year survival via anterior swim bladder inflation||adjacent|
|Thyroperoxidase inhibition leading to altered amphibian metamorphosis||adjacent||High||Moderate|
|Xenopus laevis||Xenopus laevis||High||NCBI|
Life Stage Applicability
|All life stages||High|
Key Event Relationship Description
Thyroid hormones (THs), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) are synthesized by NIS and TPO in the thyroid gland as iodinated thyroglobulin (Tg) and stored in the colloid of thyroid follicles. Secretion from the follicle into serum is a multi-step process. The first involves thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation of the separation of the peptide linkage between Tg and TH. The next steps involve endocytosis of colloid, fusion of the endosome with the basolateral membrane of the thyrocyte, and finally release of TH into blood. More detailed descriptions of this process can be found in reviews by Braverman and Utiger (2012) and Zoeller et al. (2007).
Evidence Supporting this KER
The weight of evidence linking these two KEs of decreased TH synthesis and decreased T4 in serum is strong. It is commonly accepted dogma that decreased synthesis in the thyroid gland will result in decreased circulating TH (serum T4).
The biological relationship between two KEs in this KER is well understood and documented fact within the scientific community.
It is widely accepted that TPO inhibition leads to declines in serum T4 levels in adult mammals. This is due to the fact that the sole source for circulating T4 derives from hormone synthesis in the thyroid gland. Indeed, it has been known for decades that insufficient dietary iodine will lead to decreased serum TH concentrations due to inadequate synthesis. Strong qualitative and quantitative relationships exist between reduced TH synthesis and reduced serum T4 (Ekerot et al., 2013; Degon et al., 2008; Cooper et al., 1982; 1983; Leonard et al., 2016; Zoeller and Tan, 2007). There is more limited evidence supporting the relationship between decreased TH synthesis and lowered circulating hormone levels during development. Lu and Anderson (1994) followed the time course of TH synthesis, measured as thyroxine secretion rate, in non-treated pregnant rats and correlated it with serum T4 levels More recently, modeling of TH in the rat fetus demonstrates the quantitative relationship between TH synthesis and serum T4 concentrations (Hassan et al., 2017). Furthermore, a wide variety of drugs and chemicals that inhibit TPO are known to result in decreased release of TH from the thyroid gland, as well as decreased circulating TH concentrations. This is evidenced by a very large number of studies that employed a wide variety of techniques, including thyroid gland explant cultures, tracing organification of 131-I and in vivo treatment of a variety of animal species with known TPO inhibitors (King and May,1984; Atterwill et al., 1990; Brown et al., 1986; Brucker-Davis, 1998; Haselman et al., 2020; Hornung et al., 2010; Hurley et al., 1998; Kohrle, 2008; Tietge et al., 2010).
Temporal Evidence: The temporal nature of this KER is applicable to all life stages, including development (Seed et al., 2005). There are currently no studies that measured both TPO synthesis and TH production during development. However, the impact of decreased TH synthesis on serum hormones is similar across all ages. Good evidence for the temporal relationship comes from thyroid system modeling of the impacts of iodine deficiency and NIS inhibition (e.g., Degon et al., 2008; Fisher et al., 2013). In addition, recovery experiments have demonstrated that serum thyroid hormones recovered in athyroid mice following grafting of in-vitro derived follicles (Antonica et al., 2012). In Xenopus, it has been shown that depression of TH synthesis in the thyroid gland precedes depression of circulating TH within 7 days of exposure during pro-metamorphosis (Haselman et al., 2020).
Dose-response Evidence: Dose-response data is lacking from studies that include concurrent measures of both TH synthesis and serum TH concentrations. However, data is available demonstrating correlations between thyroidal TH and serum TH concentrations during gestation and lactation during development (Gilbert et al., 2013). This data was used to develop a rat quantitative biologically-based dose-response model for iodine deficiency (Fisher et al., 2013). In Xenopus, dose-responses were demonstrated in both thyroidal T4 and circulating T4 following exposure to three TPO inhibitors (Haselman et al., 2020).
Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
There are no inconsistencies in this KER, but there are some uncertainties. The first uncertainty stems from the paucity of data for quantitative modeling of the relationship between the degree of synthesis decrease and resulting changes in circulating T4 concentrations. In addition, most of the data supporting this KER comes from inhibition of TPO, and there are a number of other processes (e.g., endocytosis, lysosomal fusion, basolateral fusion and release) that are not as well studied.
Quantitative Understanding of the Linkage
In rats, Hassan et al. (2020) demonstrated in vitro:ex vivo correlations of TPO inhibition using PTU and MMI and constructed a quantitative model relating level of TPO inhibition with changes in circulating T4 levels. They determined that 30% inhibition of TPO was sufficient to decrease circulating T4 levels by 20%.
In Xenopus, Haselman et al. (2020) collected temporal and dose-response data for both thyroidal and circulating T4 which showed strong qualitative concordance of the response-response relationship. A quantitative relationship exists therein, but is yet to be demonstrated mathematically in this species.
Fisher et al. (2013) published a quantitative biologically-based dose-response model for iodine deficiency in the rat. This model provides quantitative relationships for thyroidal T4 synthesis (iodine organification) and predictions of serum T4 concentrations in developing rats. There are other computational models that include thyroid hormone synthesis. Ekerot et al. (2012) modeled TPO, T3, T4 and TSH in dogs and humans based on exposure to myeloperoxidase inhibitors that also inhibit TPO. This model was recently adapted for rat (Leonard et al., 2016) and Hassan et al (2017) have extended it to include the pregnant rat dam in response to TPO inhibition induced by PTU. While the original model predicted serum TH and TSH levels as a function of oral dose, it was not used to explicitly predict the relationship between serum hormones and TPO inhibition, or thyroidal hormone synthesis. Leonard et al. (2016) recently incorporated TPO inhibition into the model. Degon et al (2008) developed a human thyroid model that includes TPO, but does not make quantitative prediction of organification changes due to inhibition of the TPO enzyme. Further empirical support for the response-response relationship has been demonstrated in the amphibian model, Xenopus laevis, exposed to TPO inhibitors during pro-metamorphosis (Haselman et al., 2020) wherein temporal profiles were measured for both thyroidal and circulating T4.
Given that the thyroid gland contains follicular lumen space filled with stored thyroglobulin/T4, complete inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis at a given point in time will not result in an instantaneous decrease in circulating T4. The system will be capable of maintaining sufficient circulating T4 levels until the gland stores are depleted. The time it takes to deplete stored hormone will greatly depend on species, developmental status and numerous other factors.
In Xenopus, Haselman et al. (2020) demonstrated an approximately 5 day difference between a significant decrease in thyroidal T4 preceding a significant decrease in circulating T4 while exposed to a potent TPO inhibitor (MMI) continuously during pro-metamorphosis.
Known modulating factors
During Xenopus metamorphosis, circulating T4 steadily increases to peak levels at metamorphic climax. Therefore, during Xenopus metamorphosis, this KER is operable at an increased rate as compared to a system that is maintaining steady circulating T4 levels through homeostatic control. In this case, developmental status is a modulating factor for the rates and trajectories of these KEs.
Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
This KER is entirely influenced by the feedback loop between circulating T4 originating from the thyroid gland and circulating TSH originating from the pituitary. Intermediate biochemical processes exist within the hypothalamus to affirm feedback and coordinately release TSH from the pituitary. However, quantitative representations of these feedback processes are limited to models discussed previously.
In Xenopus, circulating levels of T4 increase through pro-metamorphosis indicating a "release" of feedback to allow circulating levels of T4 to increase and drive metamorphic changes (Sternberg et al., 2011). This provides evidence that homeostatic control of feedback can be developmentally dependent, and likely species dependent.
Domain of Applicability
While a majority of the empirical evidence comes from work with laboratory rodents, there is a large amount of supporting data from humans (with anti-hyperthyroidism drugs including propylthiouracil and methimazole), some amphibian species (e.g., frog), and some avian species (e.g, chicken). The following are samples from a large literature that supports this concept: Cooper et al. (1982; 1983); Hornung et al. (2010); Van Herck et al. (2013); Paul et al. (2013); Alexander et al. (2017).
Alexander EK, Pearce EN, Brent GA, Brown RS, Chen H, Dosiou C, Grobman WA, Laurberg P, Lazarus JH, Mandel SJ, Peeters RP, Sullivan S. 2017 Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy and the Postpartum. Thyroid. 2017 Mar;27(3):315-389.
Antonica F, Kasprzyk DF, Opitz R, Iacovino M, Liao XH, Dumitrescu AM, Refetoff S, Peremans K, Manto M, Kyba M, Costagliola S. Generation of functional thyroid from embryonic stem cells. Nature. 2012 491(7422):66-71.
Atterwill CK, Fowler KF. A comparison of cultured rat FRTL-5 and porcine thyroid cells for predicting the thyroid toxicity of xenobiotics. Toxicol In Vitro. 1990. 4(4-5):369-74.
Braverman, L.E. and Utiger, R.D. (2012). Werner and Ingbar's The Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text (10 ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 775-786. ISBN 978-1451120639.
Brown CG, Fowler KL, Nicholls PJ, Atterwill C. Assessment of thyrotoxicity using in vitro cell culture systems. Food Chem Toxicol. 1986 24(6-7):557-62.
Brucker-Davis F. Effects of environmental synthetic chemicals on thyroid function. Thyroid. 1998 8(9):827-56.
Cooper DS, Kieffer JD, Halpern R, Saxe V, Mover H, Maloof F, Ridgway EC (1983) Propylthiouracil (PTU) pharmacology in the rat. II. Effects of PTU on thyroid function. Endocrinology 113:921-928.
Cooper DS, Saxe VC, Meskell M, Maloof F, Ridgway EC.Acute effects of propylthiouracil (PTU) on thyroidal iodide organification and peripheral iodothyronine deiodination: correlation with serum PTU levels measured by radioimmunoassay. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1982 54(1):101-7.
Degon, M., Chipkin, S.R., Hollot, C.V., Zoeller, R.T., and Chait, Y. (2008). A computational model of the human thyroid. Mathematical Biosciences 212, 22–53
Ekerot P, Ferguson D, Glämsta EL, Nilsson LB, Andersson H, Rosqvist S, Visser SA. Systems pharmacology modeling of drug-induced modulation of thyroid hormones in dogs and translation to human. Pharm Res. 2013 30(6):1513-24.
Fisher JW, Li S, Crofton K, Zoeller RT, McLanahan ED, Lumen A, Gilbert ME. Evaluation of iodide deficiency in the lactating rat and pup using a biologically based dose-response model. Toxicol Sci. 2013 132(1):75-86.
Gilbert ME, Hedge JM, Valentín-Blasini L, Blount BC, Kannan K, Tietge J, Zoeller RT, Crofton KM, Jarrett JM, Fisher JW. An animal model of marginal iodine deficiency during development: the thyroid axis and neurodevelopmental outcome. Toxicol Sci. 2013 132(1):177-95.
Haselman, J.T., Olker, J.H., Kosian, P.A., Korte, J.J., Swintek, J.A., Denny, J.S., Nichols, J.W., Tietge, J.E., Hornung, M.W. and Degitz, S.J., 2020. Targeted pathway-based in vivo testing using thyroperoxidase inhibition to evaluate plasma thyroxine as a surrogate metric of metamorphic success in model amphibian Xenopus laevis. Toxicological Sciences, 175(2), pp.236-250.
Hassan, I., El-Masri, H., Ford, J., Brennan, A., Handa, S., Paul Friedman, K. and Gilbert, M.E., 2020. Extrapolating in vitro screening assay data for thyroperoxidase inhibition to predict serum thyroid hormones in the rat. Toxicological Sciences, 173(2), pp.280-292.
Hassan, I, El-Masri, H., Kosian, PA, Ford, J, Degitz, SJ and Gilbert, ME. Quantitative Adverse Outcome Pathway for Neurodevelopmental Effects of Thyroid Peroxidase-Induced Thyroid Hormone Synthesis Inhibition. Toxicol Sci. 2017 Nov 1;160(1):57-73
Hornung MW, Degitz SJ, Korte LM, Olson JM, Kosian PA, Linnum AL, Tietge JE. Inhibition of thyroid hormone release from cultured amphibian thyroid glands by methimazole, 6-propylthiouracil, and perchlorate. Toxicol Sci. 2010 118(1):42-51.
Hurley PM. Mode of carcinogenic action of pesticides inducing thyroid follicular cell tumors in rodents. Environ Health Perspect. 1998 106(8):437-45.
King DB, May JD. Thyroidal influence on body growth. J Exp Zool. 1984 Dec;232(3):453-60.
Köhrle J. Environment and endocrinology: the case of thyroidology. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2008 69(2):116-22.
Leonard JA, Tan YM, Gilbert M, Isaacs K, El-Masri H. Estimating margin of exposure to thyroid peroxidase inhibitors using high-throughput in vitro data, high-throughput exposure modeling, and physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling. Toxicol Sci. 2016 151(1):57-70.
Lu, M-H, and Anderson, RR. Thyroxine secretion rats during pregnancy in the rat. Endo Res. 1994. 20(4):343-364.
Paul KB, Hedge JM, Macherla C, Filer DL, Burgess E, Simmons SO, Crofton KM, Hornung MW. Cross-species analysis of thyroperoxidase inhibition by xenobiotics demonstrates conservation of response between pig and rat. Toxicology. 2013. 312:97-107.
Sternberg, R.M., Thoemke, K.R., Korte, J.J., Moen, S.M., Olson, J.M., Korte, L., Tietge, J.E. and Degitz Jr, S.J., 2011. Control of pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone synthesis and secretion by thyroid hormones during Xenopus metamorphosis. General and comparative endocrinology, 173(3), pp.428-437.
Tietge, J.E., Butterworth, B.C., Haselman, J.T., Holcombe, G.W., Hornung, M.W., Korte, J.J., Kosian, P.A., Wolfe, M. and Degitz, S.J., 2010. Early temporal effects of three thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitors in Xenopus laevis. Aquatic Toxicology, 98(1), pp.44-50.
Van Herck SL, Geysens S, Delbaere J, Darras VM. Regulators of thyroid hormone availability and action in embryonic chicken brain development. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2013. 190:96-104.
Zoeller, R. T., Tan, S. W., and Tyl, R. W. (2007). General background on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Critical reviews in toxicology 37(1-2), 11-53.