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Relationship: 305


A descriptive phrase which clearly defines the two KEs being considered and the sequential relationship between them (i.e., which is upstream, and which is downstream). More help

TH synthesis, Decreased leads to T4 in serum, Decreased

Upstream event
The causing Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help
Downstream event
The responding Key Event (KE) in a Key Event Relationship (KER). More help

Key Event Relationship Overview

The utility of AOPs for regulatory application is defined, to a large extent, by the confidence and precision with which they facilitate extrapolation of data measured at low levels of biological organisation to predicted outcomes at higher levels of organisation and the extent to which they can link biological effect measurements to their specific causes. Within the AOP framework, the predictive relationships that facilitate extrapolation are represented by the KERs. Consequently, the overall WoE for an AOP is a reflection in part, of the level of confidence in the underlying series of KERs it encompasses. Therefore, describing the KERs in an AOP involves assembling and organising the types of information and evidence that defines the scientific basis for inferring the probable change in, or state of, a downstream KE from the known or measured state of an upstream KE. More help

AOPs Referencing Relationship

AOP Name Adjacency Weight of Evidence Quantitative Understanding Point of Contact Author Status OECD Status
Inhibition of Thyroperoxidase and Subsequent Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Mammals adjacent High Moderate Kevin Crofton (send email) Open for citation & comment WPHA/WNT Endorsed
XX Inhibition of Sodium Iodide Symporter and Subsequent Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Mammals adjacent High Moderate Kevin Crofton (send email) Not under active development
Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) Inhibition and Subsequent Adverse Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Mammals adjacent High High Mary Gilbert (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
Inhibition of Na+/I- symporter (NIS) leads to learning and memory impairment adjacent High Moderate Anna Price (send email) Open for citation & comment WPHA/WNT Endorsed
Thyroperoxidase inhibition leading to increased mortality via reduced anterior swim bladder inflation adjacent Moderate Low Dries Knapen (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome EAGMST Approved
Thyroperoxidase inhibition leading to altered amphibian metamorphosis adjacent High Moderate Jonathan Haselman (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
Sodium Iodide Symporter (NIS) Inhibition leading to altered amphibian metamorphosis adjacent High High Jonathan Haselman (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
Thyroperoxidase inhibition leading to altered visual function via altered retinal layer structure adjacent Moderate Moderate Lucia Vergauwen (send email) Open for citation & comment EAGMST Under Review
Thyroperoxidase inhibition leading to altered visual function via decreased eye size adjacent Lucia Vergauwen (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development
Thyroperoxidase inhibition leading to altered visual function via altered photoreceptor patterning adjacent Lucia Vergauwen (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development
Inhibition of thyroid peroxidase leading to follicular cell adenomas and carcinomas (in rat and mouse) adjacent Charles Wood (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
Inhibition of iodide pump activity leading to follicular cell adenomas and carcinomas (in rat and mouse) adjacent Charles Wood (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
Kidney dysfunction by decreased thyroid hormone adjacent High Jung-Hwa Oh (send email) Under development: Not open for comment. Do not cite Under Development
Iodotyrosine deiodinase (IYD) inhibition leading to altered amphibian metamorphosis adjacent High High Jonathan Haselman (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
Pendrin inhibition leading to altered amphibian metamorphosis adjacent High High Jonathan Haselman (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome
Dual oxidase (DUOX) inhibition leading to altered amphibian metamorphosis adjacent High High Jonathan Haselman (send email) Under Development: Contributions and Comments Welcome

Taxonomic Applicability

Latin or common names of a species or broader taxonomic grouping (e.g., class, order, family) that help to define the biological applicability domain of the KER.In general, this will be dictated by the more restrictive of the two KEs being linked together by the KER.  More help
Term Scientific Term Evidence Link
human Homo sapiens High NCBI
rat Rattus norvegicus High NCBI
mouse Mus musculus High NCBI
Xenopus laevis Xenopus laevis High NCBI
zebrafish Danio rerio Low NCBI
fathead minnow Pimephales promelas Low NCBI

Sex Applicability

An indication of the the relevant sex for this KER. More help
Sex Evidence
Male High
Female High

Life Stage Applicability

An indication of the the relevant life stage(s) for this KER.  More help
Term Evidence
All life stages High

Key Event Relationship Description

Provides a concise overview of the information given below as well as addressing details that aren’t inherent in the description of the KEs themselves. More help

Thyroid hormones (THs), thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) are synthesized by NIS and TPO in the thyroid gland as iodinated thyroglobulin (Tg) and stored in the colloid of thyroid follicles across vertebrates. Secretion from the follicle into serum is a multi-step process. The first involves thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation of the separation of the peptide linkage between Tg and TH. The next steps involve endocytosis of colloid, fusion of the endosome with the basolateral membrane of the thyrocyte, and finally release of TH into blood. More detailed descriptions of this process can be found in reviews by Braverman and Utiger (2012) and Zoeller et al. (2007).

Evidence Collection Strategy

Include a description of the approach for identification and assembly of the evidence base for the KER.  For evidence identification, include, for example, a description of the sources and dates of information consulted including expert knowledge, databases searched and associated search terms/strings.  Include also a description of study screening criteria and methodology, study quality assessment considerations, the data extraction strategy and links to any repositories/databases of relevant references.Tabular summaries and links to relevant supporting documentation are encouraged, wherever possible. More help

Evidence Supporting this KER

Addresses the scientific evidence supporting KERs in an AOP setting the stage for overall assessment of the AOP. More help

The weight of evidence linking these two KEs of decreased TH synthesis and decreased T4 in serum is strong. It is commonly accepted dogma that decreased synthesis in the thyroid gland will result in decreased circulating TH (serum T4).

Biological Plausibility
Addresses the biological rationale for a connection between KEupstream and KEdownstream.  This field can also incorporate additional mechanistic details that help inform the relationship between KEs, this is useful when it is not practical/pragmatic to represent these details as separate KEs due to the difficulty or relative infrequency with which it is likely to be measured.   More help

The biological relationship between two KEs in this KER is well understood and documented fact within the scientific community.

Uncertainties and Inconsistencies
Addresses inconsistencies or uncertainties in the relationship including the identification of experimental details that may explain apparent deviations from the expected patterns of concordance. More help

There are no inconsistencies in this KER, but there are some uncertainties. The first uncertainty stems from the paucity of data for quantitative modeling of the relationship between the degree of synthesis decrease and resulting changes in circulating T4 concentrations. In addition, most of the data supporting this KER comes from inhibition of TPO, and there are a number of other processes (e.g., endocytosis, lysosomal fusion, basolateral fusion and release) that are not as well studied.

For example, Kim et al. (2015) investigated the adverse effects of Triphenyl phosphate (TPP), a substance that disrupts the thyroid system. Therefore, Rat pituitary (GH3) and thyroid follicular cell lines (FRTL-5) were studied. In the GH3 cells, TPP led to an upregulation of the expression of important thyroid genes (tsh, tr alpha and tr beta) while T3, a positive control, downregulated the expression of these genes. In FRTL-5 cells, the expression of nis and tpo genes was significantly upregulated, suggesting that TPP stimulates TH synthesis in the thyroid gland.

In zebrafish larvae at the age of 7 days post-fertilisation (dpf), TPP exposure resulted in a significant increase in T3 and T4 concentrations and the expression of genes involved in thyroid hormone synthesis. Exposure to TPP also significantly regulated the expression of genes involved in the metabolism (dio1), transport (ttr) and excretion (ugt1ab) of THs. The down-regulation of the crh and tsh genes in the zebrafish larvae suggests the activation of a central regulatory feedback mechanism that is triggered by the increased T3 levels in vivo. Taken together, these observations indicate that TPP increases TH concentrations in early life stages of zebrafish by disrupting central regulatory and hormone synthesis pathways.

Known modulating factors

This table captures specific information on the MF, its properties, how it affects the KER and respective references.1.) What is the modulating factor? Name the factor for which solid evidence exists that it influences this KER. Examples: age, sex, genotype, diet 2.) Details of this modulating factor. Specify which features of this MF are relevant for this KER. Examples: a specific age range or a specific biological age (defined by...); a specific gene mutation or variant, a specific nutrient (deficit or surplus); a sex-specific homone; a certain threshold value (e.g. serum levels of a chemical above...) 3.) Description of how this modulating factor affects this KER. Describe the provable modification of the KER (also quantitatively, if known). Examples: increase or decrease of the magnitude of effect (by a factor of...); change of the time-course of the effect (onset delay by...); alteration of the probability of the effect; increase or decrease of the sensitivity of the downstream effect (by a factor of...) 4.) Provision of supporting scientific evidence for an effect of this MF on this KER. Give a list of references.  More help

During Xenopus metamorphosis, circulating T4 steadily increases to peak levels at metamorphic climax. Therefore, during Xenopus metamorphosis, this KER is operable at an increased rate as compared to a system that is maintaining steady circulating T4 levels through homeostatic control. In this case, developmental status is a modulating factor for the rates and trajectories of these KEs. 

Response-response Relationship
Provides sources of data that define the response-response relationships between the KEs.  More help

Fisher et al. (2013) published a quantitative biologically-based dose-response model for iodine deficiency in the rat. This model provides quantitative relationships for thyroidal T4 synthesis (iodine organification) and predictions of serum T4 concentrations in developing rats. There are other computational models that include thyroid hormone synthesis. Ekerot et al. (2012) modeled TPO, T3, T4 and TSH in dogs and humans based on exposure to myeloperoxidase inhibitors that also inhibit TPO.  This model was recently adapted for rats(Leonard et al., 2016) and Hassan et al (2017) have extended it to include the pregnant rat dam in response to TPO inhibition induced by PTU. While the original model predicted serum TH and TSH levels as a function of oral dose, it was not used to explicitly predict the relationship between serum hormones and TPO inhibition, or TH synthesis. Leonard et al. (2016) recently incorporated TPO inhibition into the model. Degon et al (2008) developed a human thyroid model that includes TPO, but does not make quantitative prediction of organification changes due to inhibition of the TPO enzyme. Further empirical support for the response-response relationship has been demonstrated in the amphibian model, Xenopus laevis, exposed to TPO inhibitors during pro-metamorphosis (Haselman et al., 2020) wherein temporal profiles were measured for both thyroidal and circulating T4.

Information regarding the approximate time-scale of the changes in KEdownstream relative to changes in KEupstream (i.e., do effects on KEdownstream lag those on KEupstream by seconds, minutes, hours, or days?). More help

Given that the thyroid gland contains follicular lumen space filled with stored thyroglobulin/T4, complete inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis at a given point in time will not result in an instantaneous decrease in circulating T4. The system will be capable of maintaining sufficient circulating T4 levels until the gland stores are depleted. The time it takes to deplete stored hormone will greatly depend on species, developmental status and numerous other factors.

In Xenopus, Haselman et al. (2020) demonstrated an approximately 5 day difference between a significant decrease in thyroidal T4 preceding a significant decrease in circulating T4 while exposed to a potent TPO inhibitor (MMI) continuously during pro-metamorphosis.   

Known Feedforward/Feedback loops influencing this KER
Define whether there are known positive or negative feedback mechanisms involved and what is understood about their time-course and homeostatic limits. More help

This KER is entirely influenced by the feedback loop between circulating T4 originating from the thyroid gland and circulating TSH originating from the pituitary. Intermediate biochemical processes exist within the hypothalamus to affirm feedback and coordinately release TSH from the pituitary. However, quantitative representations of these feedback processes are limited to models discussed previously.

In Xenopus, circulating levels of T4 increase through pro-metamorphosis indicating a "release" of feedback to allow circulating levels of T4 to increase and drive metamorphic changes (Sternberg et al., 2011). This provides evidence that homeostatic control of feedback can be developmentally dependent, and likely species dependent.  

Domain of Applicability

A free-text section of the KER description that the developers can use to explain their rationale for the taxonomic, life stage, or sex applicability structured terms. More help

Taxonomic: This KER is plausibly applicable across vertebrates. While a majority of the empirical evidence comes from work with laboratory rodents, there is a large amount of supporting data from humans (with anti-hyperthyroidism drugs including propylthiouracil and methimazole), some amphibian species (e.g., frog), fish species (e.g., zebrafish and fathead minnow), and some avian species (e.g, chicken).  The following are samples from a large literature that supports this concept: Cooper et al. (1982; 1983); Hornung et al. (2010); Van Herck et al. (2013); Paul et al. (2013); Nelson et al. (2016); Alexander et al. (2017); Stinckens et al. (2020).

Life stage: Applicability to certain life stages may depend on the species and their dependence on maternally transferred thyroid hormones (TH) during the earliest phases of development. The earliest life stages of teleost fish rely on maternally transferred THs to regulate certain developmental processes until embryonic TH synthesis is active (Power et al., 2001). As a result, TPO inhibition is not expected to decrease TH synthesis during these earliest stages of development. In zebrafish, Opitz et al. (2011) showed the formation of a first thyroid follicle at 55 hours post fertilization (hpf), Chang et al. (2012) showed a first significant TH increase at 120 hpf and Walter et al. (2019) showed clear TH production already at 72 hpf but did not analyse time points between 24 and 72 hpf. In fathead minnows, a significant increase of whole body TH      levels was already observed between 1 and 2 dpf, which corresponds to the appearance of the thyroid anlage at 35 hpf prior to the first observation of thyroid follicles at 58 hpf (Wabuke-Bunoti and Firling, 1983). It is still uncertain when exactly embryonic TH synthesis is activated and how this determines sensitivity to TH system disruptors.

Sex: The KE is plausibly applicable to both sexes. Thyroid hormones are essential in both sexes and the components of the HPT-axis are identical in both sexes. There can however be sex-dependent differences in the sensitivity to the disruption of thyroid hormone levels and the magnitude of the response. In humans, females appear more susceptible to hypothyroidism compared to males when exposed to certain halogenated chemicals (Hernandez‐Mariano et al., 2017; Webster et al., 2014). In adult zebrafish, Liu et al. (2019) showed sex-dependent changes in thyroid hormone levels and mRNA expression of regulatory genes including corticotropin releasing hormone (crh), thyroid stimulating hormone (tsh) and deiodinase 2 after exposure to organophosphate flame retardants. The underlying mechanism of any sex-related differences remains unclear.


List of the literature that was cited for this KER description. More help

Alexander EK, Pearce EN, Brent GA, Brown RS, Chen H, Dosiou C, Grobman WA, Laurberg P, Lazarus JH, Mandel SJ, Peeters RP, Sullivan S.  2017 Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association for the Diagnosis and Management of Thyroid Disease During Pregnancy and the Postpartum. Thyroid. 2017 Mar;27(3):315-389.

Antonica F, Kasprzyk DF, Opitz R, Iacovino M, Liao XH, Dumitrescu AM, Refetoff S, Peremans K, Manto M, Kyba M, Costagliola S.  Generation of functional thyroid from embryonic stem cells.  Nature. 2012 491(7422):66-71.

Atterwill CK, Fowler KF. A comparison of cultured rat FRTL-5 and porcine thyroid cells for predicting the thyroid toxicity of xenobiotics. Toxicol In Vitro. 1990. 4(4-5):369-74.

Braverman, L.E. and Utiger, R.D. (2012). Werner and Ingbar's The Thyroid: A Fundamental and Clinical Text (10 ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 775-786. ISBN 978-1451120639.

Brown CG, Fowler KL, Nicholls PJ, Atterwill C. Assessment of thyrotoxicity using in vitro cell culture systems. Food Chem Toxicol. 1986 24(6-7):557-62.

Brucker-Davis F. Effects of environmental synthetic chemicals on thyroid function. Thyroid. 1998 8(9):827-56.

Chang J, Wang M, Gui W, Zhao Y, Yu L, Zhu G. 2012. Changes in thyroid hormone levels during zebrafish development. Zoological Science. 29(3):181-184.

Cooper DS, Kieffer JD, Halpern R, Saxe V, Mover H, Maloof F, Ridgway EC (1983) Propylthiouracil (PTU) pharmacology in the rat. II. Effects of PTU on thyroid function. Endocrinology 113:921-928.

Cooper DS, Saxe VC, Meskell M, Maloof F, Ridgway EC.Acute effects of propylthiouracil (PTU) on thyroidal iodide organification and peripheral iodothyronine deiodination: correlation with serum PTU levels measured by radioimmunoassay. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1982 54(1):101-7.

Crane HM, Pickford DB, Hutchinson TH, Brown JA. 2006. The effects of methimazole on development of the fathead minnow, pimephales promelas, from embryo to adult. Toxicological Sciences. 93(2):278-285.

Degon, M., Chipkin, S.R., Hollot, C.V., Zoeller, R.T., and Chait, Y. (2008). A computational model of the human thyroid. Mathematical Biosciences 212, 22–53

Ekerot P, Ferguson D, Glämsta EL, Nilsson LB, Andersson H, Rosqvist S, Visser SA. Systems pharmacology modeling of drug-induced modulation of thyroid hormones in dogs and translation to human. Pharm Res. 2013 30(6):1513-24.

Fisher JW, Li S, Crofton K, Zoeller RT, McLanahan ED, Lumen A, Gilbert ME.  Evaluation of iodide deficiency in the lactating rat and pup using a biologically based dose-response model. Toxicol Sci. 2013 132(1):75-86.

Gilbert ME, Hedge JM, Valentín-Blasini L, Blount BC, Kannan K, Tietge J, Zoeller RT, Crofton KM, Jarrett JM, Fisher JW.  An animal model of marginal iodine deficiency during development: the thyroid axis and neurodevelopmental outcome.  Toxicol Sci. 2013 132(1):177-95.

Handa S, Hassan I, Gilbert M, El-Masri H. 2021. Mechanistic Computational Model for Extrapolating In Vitro Thyroid Peroxidase (TPO) Inhibition Data to Predict Serum Thyroid Hormone Levels in Rats. Toxicological Sciences 183(1):36-48.

Haselman, J.T., Olker, J.H., Kosian, P.A., Korte, J.J., Swintek, J.A., Denny, J.S., Nichols, J.W., Tietge, J.E., Hornung, M.W. and Degitz, S.J., 2020. Targeted pathway-based in vivo testing using thyroperoxidase inhibition to evaluate plasma thyroxine as a surrogate metric of metamorphic success in model amphibian Xenopus laevis. Toxicological Sciences, 175(2), pp.236-250.

Hassan, I, El-Masri, H., Kosian, PA, Ford, J, Degitz, SJ and Gilbert, ME. Quantitative Adverse Outcome Pathway for Neurodevelopmental Effects of Thyroid Peroxidase-Induced Thyroid Hormone Synthesis Inhibition. Toxicol Sci. 2017 Nov 1;160(1):57-73

Hassan, I., El-Masri, H., Ford, J., Brennan, A., Handa, S., Paul Friedman, K. and Gilbert, M.E., 2020. Extrapolating in vitro screening assay data for thyroperoxidase inhibition to predict serum thyroid hormones in the rat. Toxicological Sciences, 173(2), pp.280-292.

Hernandez-Mariano JA, Torres-Sanchez L, Bassol-Mayagoitia S, Escamilla-Nunez M, Cebrian ME, Villeda-Gutierrez EA, Lopez-Rodriguez G, Felix-Arellano EE, Blanco-Munoz J. 2017. Effect of exposure to p,p '-dde during the first half of pregnancy in the maternal thyroid profile of female residents in a mexican floriculture area. Environmental Research. 156:597-604.

Hornung MW, Degitz SJ, Korte LM, Olson JM, Kosian PA, Linnum AL, Tietge JE. Inhibition of thyroid hormone release from cultured amphibian thyroid glands by methimazole, 6-propylthiouracil, and perchlorate. Toxicol Sci. 2010 118(1):42-51.

Hurley PM. Mode of carcinogenic action of pesticides inducing thyroid follicular cell tumors in rodents. Environ Health Perspect. 1998 106(8):437-45.

Kim, S., Jung, J., Lee, I., Jung, D., Youn, H., & Choi, K. (2015). Thyroid disruption by triphenyl phosphate, an organophosphate flame retardant, in zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos/larvae, and in GH3 and FRTL-5 cell lines. Aquatic Toxicology160, 188–196.

King DB, May JD. Thyroidal influence on body growth. J Exp Zool. 1984 Dec;232(3):453-60.

Köhrle J. Environment and endocrinology: the case of thyroidology. Ann Endocrinol (Paris). 2008 69(2):116-22.

Leonard JA, Tan YM, Gilbert M, Isaacs K, El-Masri H. Estimating margin of exposure to thyroid peroxidase inhibitors using high-throughput in vitro data, high-throughput exposure modeling, and physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling. Toxicol Sci. 2016 151(1):57-70.

Liu CS, Zhang XW, Deng J, Hecker M, Al-Khedhairy A, Giesy JP, Zhou BS. 2011. Effects of prochloraz or propylthiouracil on the cross-talk between the hpg, hpa, and hpt axes in zebrafish. Environmental Science & Technology. 45(2):769-775.

Liu XS, Cai Y, Wang Y, Xu SH, Ji K, Choi K. 2019. Effects of tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (tdcpp) and triphenyl phosphate (tpp) on sex-dependent alterations of thyroid hormones in adult zebrafish. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 170:25-32.

Lu, M-H, and Anderson, RR. Thyroxine secretion rats during pregnancy in the rat.  Endo Res. 1994. 20(4):343-364.

Nelson K, Schroeder A, Ankley G, Blackwell B, Blanksma C, Degitz S, Flynn K, Jensen K, Johnson R, Kahl M et al. 2016. Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole part i: Fathead minnow. Aquatic Toxicology. 173:192-203.

Opitz R, Maquet E, Zoenen M, Dadhich R, Costagliola S. 2011. Tsh receptor function is required for normal thyroid differentiation in zebrafish. Molecular Endocrinology. 25(9):1579-1599.

Paul KB, Hedge JM, Macherla C, Filer DL, Burgess E, Simmons SO, Crofton KM, Hornung MW. Cross-species analysis of thyroperoxidase inhibition by xenobiotics demonstrates conservation of response between pig and rat. Toxicology. 2013. 312:97-107.

Power DM, Llewellyn L, Faustino M, Nowell MA, Bjornsson BT, Einarsdottir IE, Canario AV, Sweeney GE. 2001. Thyroid hormones in growth and development of fish. Comp Biochem Physiol C Toxicol Pharmacol. 130(4):447-459.

Raldua D, Babin PJ. 2009. Simple, rapid zebrafish larva bioassay for assessing the potential of chemical pollutants and drugs to disrupt thyroid gland function. Environmental Science & Technology. 43(17):6844-6850.

Rehberger K, Baumann L, Hecker M, Braunbeck T. 2018. Intrafollicular thyroid hormone staining in whole-mount zebrafish (danio rerio) embryos for the detection of thyroid hormone synthesis disruption. Fish Physiology and Biochemistry. 44(3):997-1010.

Sternberg, R.M., Thoemke, K.R., Korte, J.J., Moen, S.M., Olson, J.M., Korte, L., Tietge, J.E. and Degitz Jr, S.J., 2011. Control of pituitary thyroid-stimulating hormone synthesis and secretion by thyroid hormones during Xenopus metamorphosis. General and comparative endocrinology, 173(3), pp.428-437.

Stinckens E, Vergauwen L, Blackwell BR, Anldey GT, Villeneuve DL, Knapen D. 2020. Effect of thyroperoxidase and deiodinase inhibition on anterior swim bladder inflation in the zebrafish. Environmental Science & Technology. 54(10):6213-6223.

Stinckens E, Vergauwen L, Schroeder A, Maho W, Blackwell B, Witters H, Blust R, Ankley G, Covaci A, Villeneuve D et al. 2016. Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole part ii: Zebrafish. Aquatic Toxicology. 173:204-217.

Thienpont B, Tingaud-Sequeira A, Prats E, Barata C, Babin PJ, Raldua D. 2011. Zebrafish eleutheroembryos provide a suitable vertebrate model for screening chemicals that impair thyroid hormone synthesis. Environmental Science & Technology. 45(17):7525-7532.

Tietge, J.E., Butterworth, B.C., Haselman, J.T., Holcombe, G.W., Hornung, M.W., Korte, J.J., Kosian, P.A., Wolfe, M. and Degitz, S.J., 2010. Early temporal effects of three thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitors in Xenopus laevis. Aquatic Toxicology, 98(1), pp.44-50.

van der Ven LTM, van den Brandhof EJ, Vos JH, Power DM, Wester PW. 2006. Effects of the antithyroid agent propylthiouracil in a partial life cycle assay with zebrafish. Environmental Science & Technology. 40(1):74-81.

Van Herck SL, Geysens S, Delbaere J, Darras VM.  Regulators of thyroid hormone availability and action in embryonic chicken brain development. Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2013. 190:96-104.

Wabukebunoti MAN, Firling CE. 1983. The prehatching development of the thyroid-gland of the fathead minnow, pimephales-promelas (rafinesque). General and Comparative Endocrinology. 49(2):320-331.

Walter KM, Miller GW, Chen XP, Yaghoobi B, Puschner B, Lein PJ. 2019. Effects of thyroid hormone disruption on the ontogenetic expression of thyroid hormone signaling genes in developing zebrafish (danio rerio). General and Comparative Endocrinology. 272:20-32.

Webster GM, Venners SA, Mattman A, Martin JW. 2014. Associations between perfluoroalkyl acids (pfass) and maternal thyroid hormones in early pregnancy: A population-based cohort study. Environmental Research. 133:338-347.

Zoeller, R. T., Tan, S. W., and Tyl, R. W. (2007). General background on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis. Critical reviews in toxicology 37(1-2), 11-53.