Key Event Title
|Level of Biological Organization|
Key Event Components
|activin receptor signaling pathway||activin receptor complex||decreased|
Key Event Overview
AOPs Including This Key Event
|AOP Name||Role of event in AOP|
|GR Agonism Leading to Impaired Fin Regeneration||KeyEvent|
|All life stages||High|
Key Event Description
Activin is a dimeric protein composed of two β subunits. These subunits – either βA or βB – dictate the specific type of activin depending on their pairing. Activins have different function depending on the tissue in which they are acting (Kaneko, 2016) Activin plays a large role in cancer metastasis, immune response, inflammation and cell migration (Kang & Shyr, 2011). In fish, the activin signaling pathway is involved with the promotion of blastemal cell proliferation in the fin regeneration process (Wehner & Weidinger, 2015).
How It Is Measured or Detected
Activin signaling can be measured in vitro using the HepG2 cell line (Gray et al., 2003). Activin abundance has been measured in serum using high performance liquid chromotography (HPLC [Sakai et al., 1992]).
Domain of Applicability
Although activin binding specificity is species dependent, the receptor is highly conserved across taxa. Activin's role in cell migration is also conserved across species (Hinck, 2012).
Gray PC, Harrison CA, Vale W. 2003. Cripto forms a complex with activin and type II activin receptors and can block activin signaling. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 100(9):5193-5198. www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.0531290100
Hinck AP. 2012. Structural studies of the TGF-Bs and their Receptors - insights into evolution of the TGF-B superfamily. Federation of European Biochemical Societies Letters 586: 1860-1870. doi.10.1016/j.febslet.2012.05.028
Kaneko H, 2016. Handbook of Hormones: Pages 295-297, e33B-2.
Kang HY, Shyr CR. 2011. Activins and Cell Migration. Vitamins and Hormons 85: 129-48. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-385961-7.00007-X.
Sakai R, Shiozaki M, Tabuchi M, Eto Y. 1992. The measurement of activin/EDF in mouse serum: Evidence for extragonadal production. Biochemical And Biophysical Research Communications 188(2):921-926. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-291X(92)91143-E
Wehner D, Weidinger G. 2015. Signaling networks organizing regenerative growth of the zebrafish fin. Trends in Genetics 31 (6):336-343. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tig.2015.03.012